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7944 LAM RESEARCH TEMPERATURE CONTROL RING REPAIR 678-031432-004
7944 LAM RESEARCH TEMPERATURE CONTROL RING REPAIR 678-031432-004
$500.00






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Design Considerations and Recommended Materials for O Rings Used in High Temperature Applications

O-rings are designed based on the applications in which they are used. There are typically two types of applications:

* Static applications, where the sealing faces are stationary, and

* Dynamic applications, where the sealing faces are in motion

Generally, static applications are more tolerant to the design limitations of the rings than the dynamic applications.

Apart from these two typical classifications, applications are also classified based on their operating temperature ranges. High temperature application is one such classification that requires O-rings to operate at temperatures in excess of 400 degrees F. While the compatibility between the O-rings and the fluid to be sealed is critical in designing an O ring, the operating temperature range is also important and particularly relevant to material selection. Other properties, such as hardness, tensile strength, groove depth, and permeation rates are factors that largely influence the design.

O-Ring Material Selection for High Temperature Applications:

O-ring materials chosen for high temperature applications are critically important. Some commonly used materials for making O-rings suited for high temperature applications include silicone and fluoroelastomers such as Viton(r). Apart from these materials, Kalrez(r) and Aflas(r) are other elastomers commonly used for making these O-rings. Each material has its own advantage and disadvantage as it reacts differently when exposed to different factors. The characteristics of these materials are discussed below.

Silicone Rubber:

Silicone rubber is a combination of silicone, oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon that is used to make O-rings for withstanding temperatures as high as 575 degrees F. Therefore, O-rings made of silicone rubber are widely adopted in automotive components and cookware. Another significant property of this material is its broad operating temperature range. However, O rings made of silicone rubber are found in some low temperature applications as well.

Fluoroelastomers (Viton(r)):

Viton(r) is yet another synthetic elastomer popular for its broad operating temperature ranges. Though the ideal operating temperature of O-rings made of this material ranges from -10 deg F to +400 deg F, the rings can withstand extremely high temperature of about 500 deg F for a short period. However, Viton(r) is not recommended for applications that demand exposure towards ketones, organic acids, hot water, and steam.

Aflas(r):

Aflas(r) is a proprietary fluoroelastomer that has also been adopted for high temperature O-ring applications. Based on an alternating copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and propylene, these O-rings can withstand temperatures of up to 450 deg F in almost all media and even up to 500 deg F in steam applications. O-rings made from Aflas(r) also offer excellent resistance to oils, chemicals, as well as ozone.

Kalrez®:

Another proprietary elastomer commonly used in high temperature sealing applications is Kalrez(r). A type of fluoroelastomer that has excellent resistance to temperature, Kalrez(r), in some grades, can be used in continuous operating temperatures of up to 600 degrees F. In addition, this elastomer Kalrez(r) has excellent resistance to chemicals, oils, solvents, and acids.

Design Considerations for High Temperature Applications:

Though the most critical factor to be considered for a high temperature application is the material selection, the design of the gland and the way in which the O ring is mounted also plays a role. By making modifications to the gland design, O-rings can be used in a wide range of temperatures. Gland volume is increased to compensate the thermal expansion of the rings when designing for high temperature applications. For low temperature applications, the gland depth is reduced to obtain the required squeeze on the contracted O-ring. In addition, to compensate for the
Gough-Joule
effect, O-rings in high temperature applications are mounted in a tangentially compressed state. The
Gough-Joule
effect is essentially the inclination of elastomers to shrink if they are heated under tension, leading to seal failure in elastomeric O rings.

Hardness:

Another factor to be considered while selecting O-rings for high temperature applications is hardness. While O-rings designed with low durometer hardness can provide proper sealing at low temperature, high temperature applications may require O-rings with high durometer hardness. Generally, the Shore A durometer is used to measure the hardness of the rubber compounds.

If you need o-rings for your specific application, or simply more information, please check out a list of
o ring manufacturers
on Zycon.com.



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